What is Cognitive Radio?

A cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent radio that can be programmed and configured dynamically. Its transceiver is designed to use the best wireless channels in its vicinity. Such a radio automatically detects available channels in wireless spectrum, then accordingly changes its transmission or reception parameters to allow more concurrent wireless communications in a given spectrum band at one location.

This process is a form of dynamic spectrum management. In response to the operator’s commands, the cognitive engine is capable of configuring radio-system parameters. These parameters include “waveform, protocol, operating frequency, and networking”. This functions as an autonomous unit in the communications environment, exchanging information about the environment with the networks it accesses and other cognitive radios (CRs). A CR “monitors its own performance continuously”, in addition to “reading the radio’s outputs”; it then uses this information to “determine the RF environment, channel conditions, link performance, etc.”, and adjusts the “radio’s settings to deliver the required quality of service subject to an appropriate combination of user requirements, operational limitations, and regulatory constraints”.

Some “smart radio” proposals combine wireless mesh network—dynamically changing the path messages take between two given nodes using cooperative diversity; cognitive radio—dynamically changing the frequency band used by messages between two consecutive nodes on the path; and software-defined radio—dynamically changing the protocol used by message between two consecutive nodes. J. H. Snider, Lawrence Lessig, David Weinberger, and others say that low power “smart” radio is inherently superior to standard broadcast radio.

Cognitive radio (CR) is a paradigm for opportunistic access of licensed (primary) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum by unlicensed (secondary) users. This emerging technology is aimed at improving the efficiency of wireless resource usage. In medical environments, CR has big potential to solve interference problems caused by the scarcity of spectrum allocated to medical applications. Hospital environments such as the operating room (OR) offer challenging scenarios to spectrum managers, in which CR is a viable solution to ensure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). A recent trend in medical practice is the use of wearable wireless medical sensors. These devices are being introduced in unlicensed bands, where the usual concepts of primary and secondary users do not apply. This paper discusses some of the alternatives for implementing CR in such particular environments. A short survey of CR for hospital environments is also presented, highlighting the differences with the scenarios in which wireless sensors are used.

MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS!

The MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS!

There is no established legal protection for the human subject when researchers use Brain Machine Interface (cybernetic technology) to reverse engineer the human brain.

The progressing neuroscience using brain-machine-interface will enable those in power to push the human mind wide open for inspection.

Facebook is building brain-computerinterfaces

“Do you want to work for the company who pioneered putting augmented reality dogears on teens, or the one that pioneered typing with telepathy?” You don’t haveto say anything. For Facebook, thinking might be enough.

Facebook hired Dugan last year to lead its secretive new Building 8 research lab. She had previously run Google’s Advanced Technology And Products division, and was formerly a head of DARPA.

Facebook built a special Area 404 wing of its Menlo Park headquarters with tons of mechanical engineering equipment to help Dugan’s team quickly prototype new hardware. In December, it signed rapid collaboration deals with Stanford, Harvard, MIT and more to get academia’s assistance.

 

Elon Musk and the goal of human enhancement

Brain-computer interfaces could change the way people think, soldiers fight and Alzheimer’s is treated. But are we in control of the ethical ramifications, extending the human mind …

At the World Government Summit in Dubai, Tesla and SpaceX chief executive Elon Musk said that people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age. He said that a “merger of biological intelligence and machine intelligence” would be necessary to ensure we stay economically valuable.

 

Soon afterwards, the serial entrepreneur created Neuralink, with the intention of connecting computers directly to human brains. He wants to do this using “neural lace” technology – implanting tiny electrodes into the brain for direct computing capabilities.

There is call for alarm. What kind of privacy safeguard is needed, computers can read your thoughts!

In recent decades areas of research involving nanotechnology, information technology, biotechnology and neuroscience have emerged, resulting in, products and services.

We are facing an era of synthetic telepathy, with brain-computer-interface and communication technology based on thoughts, not speech.

An appropriate albeit alarming question is: “Do you accept being enmeshed in a computer network and turned into a multimedia module”?  authorities will be able to collect information directly from your brain, without your consent.

This kind of research in bioelectronics has been progressing for half a century.

 

Brain Machine Interface (Cybernetic technology) can be used to read our minds and to manipulate our sensory perception!

Man is now made whether we want it or not into a commercial biomechanical platform.How is that possible? This is due to the lack of general knowledge in the field of nanotechnology, new networking technology, artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Mathematical models and enormous computing capacity in the cloud as well as
artificial intelligence make this possible.